What is the least expensive and safest way to transport petroleum and natural gas across land?
Per the U.S. Department of Transportation, "Pipeline transportation is the safest and most economical means of transportation for our nation's energy products" with "less than one teaspoon of oil spilled per thousand barrel-miles." A study of the Keystone pipeline by the Obama administration State Department found that it would cut spillage by 89% as compared to using rails and tankers. On his first day in office, Joe Biden cancelled the Keystone pipeline while claiming it does "not serve the U.S. national interest." Four months later in May 2021, Biden waived U.S. sanctions that blocked completion of a massive natural gas pipeline from Russia to Germany while claiming that this served the "national interest of the United States." The pipeline was completed in September 2021 under warnings that it "could facilitate a possible Russian invasion" of Ukraine, "as Moscow will no longer have to worry about Ukraine's gas infrastructure to supply its main European customers."