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What was the primary cause of the 10-fold surge in illegal immigration by Central American minors in 2012 to 2014?

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Like today, media outlets blamed a 10-fold surge of illegal immigration by Central American minors in 2012-2014 on violence in their homelands. When full data was later released, it showed that the murder rates in their countries were lower during all years of the 2012-2014 border surge than in 2011. In May 2014, the U.S. Border Patrol interviewed 230 Central American minors and families who were apprehended crossing the border in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Among them, 95% said that their "primary reason for migrating to the United States was the perception of U.S. immigration laws granting free passes" to them. This surge, which the Obama administration called an "urgent humanitarian situation," began after Obama announced he would not deport most illegal immigrants who had arrived in the U.S. before 2007 and were under the age of 16. In 2014, Obama extended the latest arrival date to 2010, thus confirming their expectations that amnesty would later be granted to new arrivals.

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