Is caffeine or glyphosate (the active ingredient in the herbicide Roundup) more toxic to mammals?
Per the academic book "Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers": "Many people are frightened by the use of synthetic chemicals on food crops because they have heard that these chemicals are 'toxic' and 'cancer causing,' but are all synthetic chemicals more harmful than substances people readily ingest, like coffee and soft drinks? No. For example, in a study to assess the toxicities of various compounds, half of the rats died when given 233 mg of caffeine per kg of body weight, but it took more than 10 times that amount of glyphosate (4,500 mg glyphosate/kg body weight), which is the active ingredient in the herbicide Roundup, to cause the same percentage of deaths as 233 mg of caffeine." Also, substances that have low immediate toxic effects generally have low cancer-causing effects.