Have labor unions generally raised the wages of unionized workers?
A 2004 paper in the Journal of Labor Research summarizing the results of 100+ studies on union wage effects from 1967 into the 2000s found that unions increased the average wage of unionized workers by about 16%. However, these increased wages have driven up taxes and consumer prices, while reducing the competitiveness of unionized firms. Hence, the average real income or standard of living is 1% higher in right-to work states (where union membership is low) than in non-right-to-work states (where union membership is higher).
DocumentationUnion Economic Effects